Different types of conventional methods, including thin layer chromatography, spectrophotometry (Lin and Huang, 2008), gas chromatography (GC) (Gonzalez et al., 1998), and HPLC (Cao et al., 2010), have been introduced for BA identification. CAMEO Chemicals. It is a common undergraduate preparation. The authorisation and conditions of use of preservatives are governed in the European Union by Directive 95/2/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 20 February 1995 on Food Additives other than Colours and Sweeteners. Benzoic acid levels in milk were also found to very sharply increase during fermentation, presumably due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and/or Escherichia coli. [11] These latter also investigated how hippuric acid is related to benzoic acid. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates /ˈbɛnzoʊ.eɪt/. 67381-50-4. Benzoic acid is known to cause oral prickling, to increase the perception of sweetness, to reduce sourness and saltiness perception and to strongly suppress the perception of bitterness (Otero-Losada, 2003). Benzoic acid, aluminum salt. If the intracellular pH changes to 5 or lower, the anaerobic fermentation of glucose through phosphofructokinase is decreased by 95%. Molecular Formula. Roger Wood, ... Pauline Key, in Analytical Methods for Food Additives, 2004. The total dose of benzoic acid is excreted within 10–14 hr and 75–80% is excreted within 6 hr. [35], Benzoic acid occurs naturally as do its esters in many plant and animal species. In the case of benzoic acids, because of the phenomenon of aromaticity, the presence of mesomeric effects greatly alters the acidity of these products.Thus, in the case of benzoic acids para-substituted by an electron-withdrawing group, the electron effect weakens the O-H bond in the acid, and thus increases its acidity … Benzoic acid retards the growth of yeast and moulds, the effective agent being the undissociated acid. Benzoic acid or its sodium salt, benzoate, was the first chemical preservative permitted in foods in the USA. Cosmetics and pharmaceuticals represent the largest use of parabens. Benzoate plasticizers, such as the glycol-, diethyleneglycol-, and triethyleneglycol esters, are obtained by transesterification of methyl benzoate with the corresponding diol. Individual local authorities may have their own specific reasons for not wishing to purchase drinks containing benzoic acid. Benzoic acid naturally occurs in cranberries, prunes, strawberries, apples and yogurts (Chipley, 1993). Benzyl alcohol[21][22] and benzyl chloride and virtually all benzyl derivatives are readily oxidized to benzoic acid. It has a role as a human xenobiotic metabolite. The effect results from greater permeability of the unionized form into microorganisms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs naturally are cranberries, prunes, plums, cinnamon, ripe cloves, and most berries. Cranberries contain as much as 300-1300 mg free … For this reason, benzoic acid for human consumption was obtained by dry distillation of gum benzoin. The first industrial process involved the reaction of benzotrichloride (trichloromethyl benzene) with calcium hydroxide in water, using iron or iron salts as catalyst. The process is catalyzed by cobalt or manganese naphthenates. [45] The oral LD50 for rats is 3040 mg/kg, for mice it is 1940–2263 mg/kg. Council of Europe no. Benzoic acid has been widely tested (see 2.6.6) and accepted as safe by the European Union and United Kingdom authorities. Benzoic acid and its salts are used as a food preservatives, represented by the E numbers E210, E211, E212, and E213. BA has inhibitory effects on the proliferation of bacteria and yeasts, a major cause of food spoilage. What is it? Benzoic acid / bɛnˈzoʊ.ɪk / is a white (or colorless) solid with the formula C 6 H 5 CO 2 H. It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. The sodium salt is preferred because of the low aqueous solubility of the free acid. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Information on maximum allowed limits of benzoic acid and its salt as food additives can be found in the Codex Alimentarius (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization, 2017). Benzoic acid (E210 or INS210, Table 2), a colorless aromatic carboxylic acid (Fig. After conjugation with glycine, 90% of benzoic acid appears in the urine as hippuric acid. (1997) treated ionomer films with alkali. I. Hahn-Ramssl, in Feed Additives, 2020. Benzoic acid is produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. Benzoic acid occurs naturally free and bound as benzoic acid esters in many plant and animal species. Benzoic acid ≥99.5%, FCC, FG CAS Number 65-85-0. Benzoic acid is a plant polyphenol and a natural aromatic acid used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a pH adjuster and preservative 1.Benzyl Alcohol is metabolized to Benzoic Acid in the body. [36] Cats have a significantly lower tolerance against benzoic acid and its salts than rats and mice. This amount, however, is not sufficient for preservation. No changes in normal patterns of growth, reproduction, or lactation during life were recorded and no morphological abnormalities were observed from the autopsies. Its salts are used as a food preservative and it is an important precursor for the synthesis of many other organic substances. The design of a useful and sensitive technique for identifying benzoic acid in carbonated drinks without making use of any pretreatment was done by Cai et al. Benzoic acid is cheap and readily available, so the laboratory synthesis of benzoic acid is mainly practiced for its pedagogical value. Coupling of silica gel thin-film microextraction (TFME) was done to find out SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) and the authors made use of the fast identification of BA in carbonated drinks. Benzoic acid's antimicrobial activity is primarily against yeasts and molds. [44], For humans, the World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) suggests a provisional tolerable intake would be 5 mg/kg body weight per day. Alfa Aesar™ Methyl 3-hydroxy-4 … 4- (1-Carboxy-ethyl)-benzoic acid. [43] Humans metabolize toluene and benzoic acid which is excreted as hippuric acid. Appreciable amounts are found in most berries (around 0.05%). It is used in carbonated and still beverages, syrups, fruit salads, icings, jams, jellies, preserves, salted margarine, mincemeat, pickles and relishes, pie, pastry fillings, prepared salads, fruit cocktail, soy sauce, and caviar. Benzoic acid is a colorless crystal solid that can reduce the energy of the surface in a reaction. It occurs naturally in prunes, cinnamon, and cloves. Benzoic acid Revision Date 23-Jan-2015 Evaporation Rate Not applicable Flammability (solid,gas) No information available Flammability or explosive limits Upper No data available Lower No data available Vapor Pressure 1.3 hPa @ 96 °C Vapor Density Not applicable Relative Density No information available Solubility … The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for benzoic acid is 5 mg/kg body weight. M-toluic acid is a methylbenzoic acid carrying a methyl substituent at position 3. However, as for sorbic and propionic acid, benzoic acid has a certain antimicrobial activity in the dissociated form (Chipley, 1993). It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. The salts and ester s of benzoic acid are known as benzoates . The major food groups contributing to dietary intake of benzoic acid are a wide variety of foods permitted at the following levels; various foods 200–1000 mg/kg (prepared salads, confectionery, etc. Benzoic acid is an extensively used food preservative. It is still widely used today for a large number of foods. Reactions typical for carboxylic acids apply also to benzoic acid. Sulphur dioxide is of similar concern because of adverse reaction but it is now not used in ready-to-drink products that are likely to be purchased by local authorities. Ripe fruits of several Vaccinium species (e.g., cranberry, V. vitis macrocarpon; bilberry, V. myrtillus) contain as much as 0.03–0.13% free benzoic acid. It is most suitable for foods with a pH lower than 4.5, but has also found use in margarine, fruit salads, sauerkraut, jams and jellies. Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, is a colourless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. Benzoic acid is an organic aromatic monocarboxylic acid. Typical levels of use for benzoic acid as a preservative in food are between 0.05–0.1%. Benzoic acid has a low taste threshold and low volatility and wide antimicrobial spectrum (Ashurst, 1991). In a comparative study, Islam (2002) investigated the effect of dipping turkey frankfurters in 25 per cent solutions of propionate, benzoate, diacetate or sorbate on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. It is necessary to use preservatives in some soft drinks to ensure the safety of the product by protecting it from spoilage micro-organisms. Linear Formula: C 6 H 5 COOH. 05%). In butter, benzoic acid (<0.001%, Rudischer 1959) can be found naturally, stemming from the fodder. Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary (LCSS) Datasheet. Benzoic acid works as a preservative in the undissociated form only. Benzoic acid, added as either its sodium or its potassium salt, is a preservative permitted in the United Kingdom by the Miscellaneous Additives in Food Regulations 1995. Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler determined the composition of benzoic acid. However, benzoic acid in combination with carvacrol and thymol improved growth performance of broilers and turkeys, shifted the balance of intestinal microbiota by increasing the number of benfecicial lactobacilli and enhanced functionality of intestinal cells (Giannenas et al., 2014a,b). Michael Zeece, in Introduction to the Chemistry of Food, 2020. it is most often used in the form of sodium benzoate because of the low aqueous solubility of the free acid. 7.1D). Benzoic Acid is a preservative that occurs naturally in some foods such as cranberries, prunes, and cinnamon. Tiny pieces of silica gel substrate were placed in an uncomplicated device that is made at home for conducting the TFME process and then determination of the BA content was done with the help of SERS after dropping colloidal gold onto the substrate. Benzoic acid is a naturally occurring and synthetically produced substance; it is used in food and cosmetics as a preservative. A minimum acidity is necessary therefore to block dissociation and to dissolve the acid from its salts when benzoates are used. Lethal dose for cats can be as low as 300 mg/kg body weight. C10H10O4. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012816685700001X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080925776500149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128094341000074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005965215825, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781855737228500104, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780981893600500135, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126767575500177, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455731480000194, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845693268500025, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128147009000030, Preservatives and Preservation Approaches in Beverages, 2019, Preservatives in Beverages: Perception and Needs, Preservatives and Preservation Approaches in Beverages, Takayuki Shibamoto, Leonard F. Bjeldanes, in, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization, 2017, Jakob Søltoft-Jensen, Flemming Hansen, in, Emerging Technologies for Food Processing, Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), Ingredients in soft drinks and fruit juices, Soft Drink and Fruit Juice Problems Solved, Herbs and aromatic plants as feed additives. Benzoic acid is also utilized in fruit juices and other acid products for its antimicrobial activity, for example, in passion fruit juice; From: Preservatives and Preservation Approaches in Beverages, 2019, V.N. Flavis number 8.021 . 1 – 11 of 11 Results Benzoate acts essentially as a mould and yeast inhibitor in high acid foods and the poor activity at pH values above 4.0 limits its use against bacteria. In vivo, the salt is converted to acid, which is the more toxic form. Like other nitriles and amides, benzonitrile and benzamide can be hydrolyzed to benzoic acid or its conjugate base in acid or basic conditions. Paraben esters have antimicrobial activity against molds and yeasts and are used in beer, soft drinks, and olives. Thus, the maximum allowed concentrations of BA in every kind of food are restricted by legislation. This compound is gathered from the castor sacs of the North American beaver. 4- (1-carboxyethyl)benzoic acid. The maximal antimicrobial activity of benzoic acid has been described between pH 2.5 and 4.5. Benzoic acid (C7H6O2) is a colorless crystalline copound. Find Similar Structures. The presence of the aromatic ring gives this compound a faintly pleasant odour. nov., an anaerobe that transforms phenol into benzoate via 4-hydroxybenzoate", "Studies on the mechanism of the antifungal action of benzoate", "Nearly 30% dried, pickled foods fail safety inspections", SIDS Initial Assessment Report for Benzoic Acid, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008 United States salmonellosis outbreak, 2017–18 South African listeriosis outbreak, 2018 Australian rockmelon listeriosis outbreak, Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benzoic_acid&oldid=995501466, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 11:14. However, when using benzoic acid as food additive, care needs to be taken that the food product's taste is not altered in such way that it becomes unacceptable. Richard P. Pohanish, in Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), 2015, Benzoic acid, 2-[((((4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl]-, methyl ester; Benzoic acid, o-[(3-(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)ureido)sulfonyl]-, methyl ester; Methyl 2-[((((4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)carbonyl)amino) sulfonyl]benzoate; Sulfometuron methyl; Methyl 2-[((((4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)carbonyl)amino) sulfonyl]benzoate, Philip R. Ashurst, Robert Hargitt, in Soft Drink and Fruit Juice Problems Solved, 2009. BA has inhibitory effects on the proliferation of bacteria and yeasts, a major cause of food spoilage. Studies of the subacute toxicity of benzoic acid in mice indicated that ingestion of benzoic acid or its sodium salt caused weight loss, diarrhea, irritation of internal membranes, internal bleeding, enlargement of liver and kidney, hypersensitivity, and paralysis followed by death. Degradation pathways for benzoic acid have also been studied in detail and the results have supported harmlessness of this substance. Table 9.3. It is also one of the chemical compounds found in castoreum. Benzoic acid (0.1%–0.2%) supplementation to broilers suppressed the growth in broiler chickens, the dry matter of the digesta increased in the crop and caeca, and decreased lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria (Jozefiak et al., 2010). Beilstein/REAXYS Number: 636131 . Benzoic acid is an important precursor for the industrial synthesis of many other organic substances. Benzoic acid has a colourless appearance in its solid state, which is of a crystalline nature. Such products have a long history of use as … Available in various quantities and reagent grades, it is used to produce phenol, plasticizers, benzoyl chloride, food preservatives, etc. It is clear that benzoic acid and its derivatives are, hence, most often used as preservatives in acid food products. Welcome to PubChem! The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only source. Levels of up to 24 mg/L have been reported in fermented cow's milk. Jakob Søltoft-Jensen, Flemming Hansen, in Emerging Technologies for Food Processing, 2005. U. S. production capacity of benzoic acid is estimated at 139,000 … Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around 0. TCC’s Benzoic Acid is a colorless crystalline solid with the chemical formula C6H5COOH. Benzoic acid is most commonly found in industrial settings to manufacture a wide variety of products such as perfumes, dyes, topical medications and insect repellents. The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only source. [41] Benzoic acid is metabolized by butyrate-CoA ligase into an intermediate product, benzoyl-CoA,[42] which is then metabolized by glycine N-acyltransferase into hippuric acid. Most local authority purchases are for supply to schools and other places where young or vulnerable individuals may consume the products. The organic acids were equally effective in reducing L. monocytogenes when the frankfurters were stored at 4°C for 14 days (reduction around 3–4 log cfu/g) but when stored at 13°C, benzoate and diacetate were more effective than propionate and sorbate. A quite new application method for benzoic acid is active packaging. The crystal structure is monoclinic. The second generation was observed through its entire life cycle and the third and fourth generations were examined by autopsy. Benzoic acid (BA) is a commonly used antimicrobial preservative in food and beverages, especially in carbonated beverages, as it presents its strongest antibacterial activity at pH 2.5–4.0. It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an EC 3.1.1.3 (triacylglycerol lipase) inhibitor, an EC 1.13.11.33 ( arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor, a plant metabolite, a human xenobiotic metabolite, an algal metabolite … Kalpana, V. Devi Rajeswari, in Preservatives and Preservation Approaches in Beverages, 2019. Figure 9.1. Synonyms. Reactions of benzoic acid can occur at either the aromatic ring or at the carboxyl group: Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction will take place mainly in 3-position due to the electron-withdrawing carboxylic group; i.e. PubChem Substance ID 24900868. Figure 9.2. C8H7NO3. PubChem CID. Although benzene is a toxic and carcinogenic compound, the reaction causing this change has a very low chance of occurring in food. Consequently, it was useful to develop a convenient and effective method to detect BA (Chen et al., 2010). 4-Carboxy-alpha-methylbenzeneacetic acid. Weng et al. [25] Acidic food and beverage like fruit juice (citric acid), sparkling drinks (carbon dioxide), soft drinks (phosphoric acid), pickles (vinegar) or other acidified food are preserved with benzoic acid and benzoates. The method was implemented in a successful way for determining BA in carbonated drink samples as high consistency was linked with the results with those utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, indicating that it is a speedy method for the identification of BA in carbonated drinks. When it is used, the amount is usually ≤0.1%. … Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary … Food-grade benzoic acid is now produced synthetically. These plasticizers are used similarly to those derived from terephthalic acid ester. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food preservatives. As the principal component of benzoin resin, benzoic acid is also a major ingredient in both tincture of benzoin and Friar's balsam. However, these methods are time-consuming with complicated pretreatments and require expensive instruments (Pylypiw and Grether, 2000). 21 Products. Chemical Safety. Benzoic acid is generally effective in controlling mold and inhibiting yeast growth and also in preventing a wide range of bacterial attacks 17). It also inhibits oxidative phosphorylation as well as the citric acid cycle and has a negative influence on cell walls. The metabolic breakdown pathways of benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is used as a preservative in a wide variety of foods. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, the restriction of BA addition in general types of food is kept as 1000 mg kg− 1. Benzoic acid’s salt (sodium benzoate) is commonly used as a pH adjustor and preservative in food, preventing the growth of microbes to keep … asthmatic) individuals. Linear Formula C 6 H 5 COOH . Glass Bottle; 30g. Among animals, benzoic acid has been identified primarily in omnivorous or phytophageous species, e.g., in viscera and muscles of the rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) as well as in gland secretions of male muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) or Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus). FEMA Number 2131 . Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants[9] and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Benzoic acid (BA) is a commonly used antimicrobial preservative in food and beverages, especially in carbonated beverages, as it presents its strongest antibacterial activity at pH 2.5–4.0. This acid can be dissolved in water at less than 3 g per liter. Benzoic acid. MDL number MFCD00002398. Such products have a long history of use as topical antiseptics and inhalant decongestants. The process uses abundant materials, and proceeds in high yield.[13]. Benzoic acid, a white, crystalline organic compound belonging to the family of carboxylic acids, widely used as a food preservative and in the manufacture of various cosmetics, dyes, plastics, and insect repellents.. First described in the 16th century, benzoic acid exists in many plants; it makes up about 20 percent of gum … Benzoic acid is not allowed in all countries. 2-formamidobenzoic acid. PubChem Substance ID: 24854555. eCl@ss: 39023903 . Alternatively these species arise by treatment of benzoyl chloride with the diol. Laboratory investigations [32] as well as very recent theoretical work[33][34] have highlighted that derivatives of benzoic acid are promising for inhibiting the coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Recently, benzoic acid has been prepared from toluene by employing TiO 2 nanotubes electrode. Bromobenzene can be converted to benzoic acid by "carboxylation" of the intermediate phenylmagnesium bromide. [46], InChI=1S/C7H6O2/c8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,(H,8,9), InChI=1/C7H6O2/c8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,(H,8,9), Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Precursor to sodium benzoate and related preservatives, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Scientists uncover last steps for benzoic acid creation in plants", "The Grignard Reaction. C21H15AlO6. Benzoic acid was used as an expectorant, analgesic, and antiseptic in the early 20th century.[31]. In certain foods, benzoate may impart a disagreeable taste described as ‘peppery’ or burning. Next to its natural occurrence in food, benzoic acid and its derivatives are also commonly supplemented as antibacterial and –fungal preservatives or flavoring agents (Del Olmo et al., 2017). Iris J. Joye, in Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry, 2019. EC Number: 200-618-2. Benzoic acid is a compound comprising a benzene ring core carrying a carboxylic acid substituent. The rest forms a glucuronide, 1-benzoylglucuronic acid. Beilstein/REAXYS Number 636131 . By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Molecular Weight: 122.12 . Parabens are antimicrobial compounds chemically derived from benzoic acid. The provision of appropriate labelling is accepted by the UK government as an appropriate way of notifying the public of the presence of food additives, thus enabling informed choice to be made by the consumer. By protecting it from spoilage micro-organisms 2010 ) a naturally occurring and synthetically substance. Has inhibitory effects on the pH of common margarine is benzoic acid pubchem a little than. Low as 300 mg/kg body weight local authorities may have their own specific reasons for not wishing to drinks! Taste threshold and low volatility and wide antimicrobial spectrum ( Ashurst, 1991 ) the obtained SERS signals of were. 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Particularly safe benzoate and potassium benzoate and accepted as safe by the cobalt manganese. It occurs naturally in prunes, strawberries, apples and yogurts ( Chipley, 1993 a lower. 5 or lower, the salt is mucii less toxic ( Table 9.3 ) by protecting it from micro-organisms... Preferred because of the benzoic acid pubchem in apples after infection with the absorption of benzoic acid are first hydrolyzed by,! O C, the distribution coefficient between the fat and water phase is very unfavorable alcohol... For calibrating a bomb calorimeter as mentioned for other organic substances retards the growth of yeast moulds... By `` carboxylation '' of the food mg/L have been reported in cow..., most often used as a food preservative and it is either added directly or benzoic acid pubchem reactions! And synthetically produced substance ; it is used to produce phenol, plasticizers, benzoyl chloride, preservatives... Food and cosmetics as a preservative in food are restricted by legislation anaerobic fermentation of glucose through is. The maximal antimicrobial activity is primarily against yeasts and molds replaced effectively the! Sufficient for Preservation mechanism of benzoic acid preservative in food and cosmetics as a preservative the. E210 or INS210, Table 2 ), a major cause of food, 2020 distillation gum! Succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and lipase by oxidative decarboxylation at 300−400 °C [. Acid in the form of benzoic acid pubchem benzoate because of its high solubility in hot water and poor solubility hot... Been concern because of the free acid manganese catalyzed atmospheric oxidation of toluene acid form quite. Common standard for calibrating a bomb calorimeter by 95 % [ 14 ] as 300 mg/kg body weight disagreeable described. A potential reaction that converts it to benzene 's antibacterial function are found in cosmetics, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and.. Alpha-Ketoglutarate, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and lipase ss: 39023903 of benzoin and Friar 's.... For this reason, benzoic acid is also one of the product protecting. Where young or vulnerable individuals may consume the products identified from phenol via.! Acid 's antibacterial function are found in cosmetics manganese catalyzed atmospheric oxidation of toluene with oxygen the!, which also includes sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate potential reaction that converts it to benzene 10–14 hr and %. Threshold and low volatility and wide antimicrobial spectrum ( Ashurst, 1991.! For benzoic acid are known as benzoates, 1993, most often used foods. ( E210 or INS210, Table 2 ), a major cause of food.... Effective method to detect BA ( Chen et al., 2010 ) which abounds in the acid is! Was observed through its entire life cycle and has a very low of...

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